Issue 83 of INTERNATIONAL SOCIALISM JOURNAL Published Summer 1999 Copyright International Socialism

APPENDIX 1: MAKING AND REMAKING THE BALKANS - NATIONALISM, WAR AND GREAT POWER INTERVENTION57

 

Gained from

Lost to

Greece

 

 

1830

1821-1829 independence war. 1827 by Treaty of London England, France, Russia support autonomy and defeat Turkish -Egyptian fleet. 1828-1929 Russo-Turkish War leads to 1829 Treaty of Adrianople and 1830 London Conference which recognises and protects a limited Greece consisting of what is today Southern Greece

 

1864

Ionian Islands ceded by Britain

 

1881

Thessaly and Arta region of Epirus ceded by Ottoman Empire under pressure from Great Powers

 

1897

Loses war with Ottoman Empire over union with Crete. Despite displeasure of Great Powers they still guarantee Cretan autonomy

 

1912-1913

Two Balkan wars increase land area by 70 percent and population from 2.8 to 4.8 million. Gains include Aegean Islands, Salonica, Crete and part of 'Macedonia'. Denied Northern Epirus by Great Power decision to recognise it as part of new Albania

 

1914-1918

Ruling class splits pro-Entente v pro Central Powers. Allies blockade and attempt landing to support pro-Entente section

 

1919

Allies reward pro-Entente government with support for Greek troops taking Smyrna (in part to thwart Italian occupation)

 

1920

Treaty of Sèvres: (i) recognises sovereignty of Aegean islands; (ii) awards most of Western and Eastern Thrace; (iii) awards Smyrna for five years to be followed by referendum. Greece exists as a Greece of 'the two continents and the five seas'

 

1920-1922

Turkey rejects Treaty of Sèvres. War leads to Greek humiliation and recapture of Smyrna but Britain opposes too great a Turkish victory

Turkey regains Smyrna

1923

Treaty of Lausanne recognises Turkish victory but also limits gains. Leads to huge officially endorsed population Exchange

 

1940

Italy invades Greece

 

1940

Greece counter-attacks and pushes into Albania

 

1941-1945

German invasion leading to tripartite division. German, Italian and Bulgarian occupation

 

1944-1949

Greek Civil War. Stalin stands by while left defeated by Western supported forces

 

1947

Dodecanese Islands from Italy

 

1960

Separate independence for Cyprus in part to forestall union with Greece supported by pro-Greek forces

 

1974

Failed Greek sponsored coup precipitates Turkish invasion of Cyprus and division of island

 

Serbia

 

 

1804-1813

First Serbian revolt leads to independence backed by Russia in 1807 as part of Russo-Turkish War 1806-1812

 

1813-1815

Turkish reconquest

 

1815-1817

Second Serbian revolt leading to autonomy within Ottoman Empire

 

1830

Treaty of Adrianople (as a result of Russo-Turkish War 1828-1829) further defines autonomy within Ottoman Empire

 

1876-1878

War with Turkey

 

1878

Fully Independent Kingdom under Treaty of Berlin

 

1885

Failed Serbo-Bulgarian War for territory and restoration of local balance of power after Bulgarian union with Eastern Rumelia

 

1912-1913

Balkan Wars--large territorial gains, including Kosovo

 

1918

Core of new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (from 1928 Yugoslavia)

 

1941-1945

German invasion and puppet government sponsored by Axis powers

 

1991

Independent state following breakup of Yugoslavia

 

Yugoslavia

 

 

1918

Formed as Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes

 

1919

Loses Fiume to Italy (annexed finally 1924)

Italy

1922

Rappalo Treaty awards Nettuno to Italy

Italy

1941

Conflict in ruling class over whether to support Allies or Axis

 

1941

Italian, German, Hungarian, Bulgarian division Dalmatia annexed by Italy Puppet Croatian state

 

1945

Reconstitution of Yugoslavia

 

1991

Breakup of Yugoslavia

 

Croatia

 

 

Pre-1918

Part of Hungarian part of Austro-Hungarian Empire

 

1918

Part of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes/Yugoslavia

 

1941

Following German invasion puppet fascist kingdom

 

1944-1945

Reintegration into Yugoslavia

 

1991

Independence

 

Slovenia

 

 

Pre-1918

Part of Austro-Hungarian Empire

 

1918

Formed from Lower Styria, Carniola and part of Carinthia as part of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes- Yugoslavia

 

1941-1945

Fascist occupation

 

1945

Federal republic of Slovenia part of new Yugoslavia. Includes 1918 lands plus parts of Istria, Venezia, Giulia

 

1991

Independence

 

Bosnia-Hercegovina

 

 

1878

Autonomy within Ottoman Empire but under Austrian administration

 

1908

Annexed by Austro-Hungarian Empire

 

1918

Part of Yugoslavia

 

1945

Federal Republic in new Yugoslavia

 

1991

Independence

 

1995

Division under Dayton agreement

 

Macedonia

 

 

 

Historical concept of a Macedonian land highly controversial

 

1903

Special province of Ottoman Empire under European powers

 

1912

As a result of First Balkan War much of land taken by Bulgaria

 

1913

As a result Second Balkan War redivided Greece, Serbia, Montenegro

 

1944

Yugoslavia includes 'Macedonia' and recognises language

 

1991

Independence of ex-Yugoslav version of 'Macedonia'

 

1994-1995

Blockade by Greece

 

Montenegro

 

 

1878

Independent under Treaty of San Stefano

 

1910

Kingdom

 

1912-1913

Balkan Wars--allies first with Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia against Turkey and then in 1913 with Serbia and Greece against Bulgaria, Turkey, Romania

 

1918

Incorporation into Yugoslavia

 

1991

Independent

 

Albania

 

 

1913

Created from Ottoman Empire Independent principality under International Control Commission

 

1914

Invasion by Austria and allies

 

1917

Italian protectorate

 

1920

Independent but Italian supervision

 

1940

Greek counter-attack against Italy leads to invasion

 

1941

Italian invasion. Part of Greater Italy

 

1944-1945

Partisan led liberation

 

Romania

 

 

1831-1832

Russia writes Organic Statutes of Wallachia and Moldavia to create autonomous principalities within Ottoman Empire

 

1848

Revolt suppressed by actions of Russia and Ottoman Empire

 

1853

Russian occupation of principalities helps precipitate Crimean War

 

1856

Paris Treaty puts control of two principalities under International Commission. Russian influence weakened

 

1859

Principalities elect Cuza as joint Prince

 

1861

Union recognised by Ottoman Sultan

 

1878

Romanian independence as a result of Russo-Turkish War and Congress of Berlin

 

1881

Kingdom

 

1916

Joins First World War on Entente side

 

1918

Seizes Bessarabia from Russia

 

1919-1920

Rewarded under Treaties of St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly nearly doubling size by acquisition of land from Hungary (including Transylvania) and Austria plus recognition of seizure of Bessarabia.

 

1940

Loses Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to Stalin's Russia

 

1940

Loses Southern Dobrudja under Treaty of Craiova

Russia

1940

Loses part of Transylvania to Hungary under Vienna Award

Bulgaria

1941

Allies with Hitler hoping to regain land

Hungary

1944

Switches to Allied side to maintain position--regains Transylvania

 

Bessarabia

 

 

1812

Taken from Ottoman Empire by Russia

 

1918

Seized from Russia by Romania

Russia

1940

Seized back by Russia

Romania

1991

Part of independent Moldova following breakup of USSR

Russia

Bulgaria

 

 

1878

Under Treaty of San Stefano huge principality dominating Balkans

 

1878

Within months reduced in size by Treaty of Berlin

 

1885

Incorporation of Eastern Rumelia

 

1885

Serbo-Bulgarian War

 

1908

Independent

 

1912-1913

First Balkan War--huge gains. Second Balkan war--huge losses

Greece,

1915

Joins First World War on German side

Serbia

1919

Treaty of Neuilly cedes territory to Greece, Romania & Yugoslavia

Greece, Romania,

1940

Gains Dobrudja from Romania under Treaty of Craiova

Yugoslavia

1941-45

Invades Greece and Yugoslavia in support of Germany. Occupies Thrace and 'Macedonia'

 

1944

Brief war with Russia (September)

 

1944

Switches sides to attack German forces

 

Eastern Rumelia

 

 

1878

Autonomous province of Ottoman Empire

 

1885

United with Bulgaria

 


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