APPENDIX 2: FORCED MIGRATIONS IN THE 20TH CENTURY BALKANS58

Dates

Who

From

To

Numbers

Balkan Wars

'Tens and hundreds of thousands ran in all directions' (Sola)

Including

 

 

 

 

1912

Turks

Macedonia'

Turkey

100,000

1912

Macedonians

Macedonia

Bulgaria

15,000

1912-1913

Greeks

Western Thrace

Greece

70,000

1912-1913

Turks

Bulgaria

Turkey

50,000

1913

Greeks and other groups

war areas

Greece

90,000?

1913

Turks

Western Thrace

Turkey

40,000- 50,000

1913

Treaty of Adrianople between Bulgaria and Turkey-- first interstate treaty to provide for transfer of peoples

1913-1914

Bulgarians

Greece, Serbia, Turkey

Bulgaria

250,000

1913-1914

Greeks

post-war forced movement by Greek-Turkish agreement from Turkey--interrupted by 1914 war

Greece

?

World War One

even larger movements similar to Balkan Wars

Including

 

1914-1918

Serbs

internal and external displacement of over one third population including

All directions

750,000-1,000,000?

1914-1918

Serbs

Serbs as forced labour, about 10 percent of population

Bulgaria/Hungary

250,000-300,000?

1914-1918

Serbs

march to Adriatic--Serb army and civilians (huge death toll)

Adriatic

200,000-500,000?

1914-1918

Bulgarians

former 'Bulgarian lands'

Bulgaria

300,000?

1916-1918

Romanians

Dobrudja (taken by Bulgaria)

Romania

?

post-war

 

1918-1924

Hungarians

Romania (Transylvania)

Hungary

200,000

1918-1924

Hungarians

Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia

Hungary

200,000

1918-1926 and Thrace)

Bulgarians

Greece (Greek Macedonia)

Bulgaria

120,000

1918-1928

Greeks

Bulgaria

Greece

50,000

1922-1923

Greeks

forced exchange from Turkey under Treaty of Lausanne

Greece

1,200,000

1921-1928

Turks

Greece

Turkey

400,000

1921-1939

Turks

Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia

Turkey

200,000

World War Two

 

1939-1940

Romanians Germans Hungarians

Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina taken by Russia

Romania/ Germany/ Hungary

40,000 plus

1939-1940

Jews

Romania

Russia

70,000?

1939-1941

Romanians

Suspect population Bessarabia

Russian camps

100,000?

1940-1941

Yugoslav (Serbs- Jews)

flee before invading German/ Hungarian armies

Yugoslavia

300,000?

1940

Romanians

Transylvania (ceded to Hungary)

Romania

220,000

1940

Hungarians

Romania

Hungary

160,000

1940

Romanians

Dobrudia annexed by Bulgaria

Romania

100,000

1940

Bulgarians

resettled Bulgarian Dobrudja

Bulgaria

60,000

1941

Greeks

'Greek' Macedonia and Western Thrace occupied by Bulgaria

Greece

90,000-100,000

1940-1944

Ethnic Germans

Romania, Croatia, Bulgaria, Serbia

German areas

300,000

1940-1945

Serbs

'Yugoslav' Macedonia occupied by Bulgaria

Serbia

500,000

1940-1945

Serbs

Banat taken by Hungary

Serbia

?

1940-1945

Slovenians

Slovenia taken by Italy/Germany

Southern Slovenia/ Serbia

120,000

1940-1945

Serbs

Croatia

Serbia

120,000

1940-1945

Croatians Hungarians

Serbia

Croatia and Hungary

70,000

1941-1945

Forced labour

18,000 Bulgarians, 9,000 Romanians, 103,000 Yugoslavs

Nazi Germany

130,000

1941-1945

Jews

Romania 270,000-400,000,
Greece 60,000, Bulgaria 10,000 Yugoslavia 55,000-60,000

Nazi camps/ death

400,000
500,000

1943-1944

Italians

Albania and Dodecanese

Italy

40,000

1944-1945

Germans

Romania to west fleeing ahead of army

West

100,000

1944-1945

Germans

Yugoslavia to west fleeing ahead of Partisans Red Army

West

35,000

1944-1945

Hungarians

ahead of Red Army and return of Transylvania to Romania

Hungary

?

1944-1945

Balkan captives

Balkans

Russian camps

?

1944-1945

ethnic Germans

deportation from Romania, Yugoslavia

Germany

170,000?

1944-1945

ethnic Germans

deportation of those left behind from Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania

Russia

200,000?

1945 on

Bulgarians

Greek and Yugoslav territories occupied in war

Bulgaria

120,000

1945 on

Hungarians

Romania, Yugoslavia (and Czech lands)

Hungary

185,000

1944-1947

Poles

Bosnia (community From 1890s)

Poland

17,000

1945-1946

Italians

New, Yugoslavia

Italy

130,000

1946

Hungarians

New Yugoslavia

Hungary

40,000

1946 Croats

Serbs and

Hungary

Yugoslavia

40,000

1945-1948

Jews

Bulgaria

Israel/West

50,000

1945-1948

Jews

Romania

Israel/West

40,000

Greek Civil War

 

1946-1949

 

(a) 600,000 plus displaced from Greek Macedonia to Athens
--Salonica
(b) 90,000 cross borders
(c) Albanians of South Epirus

Yugoslavia and Balkan states

Albania

700,000 plus

 

25,000

Communist Era

 

1949-1950

Turks

Bulgaria

Turkey

150,000-250,000

1970-1989

Turks

Bulgaria

Turkey

300,000

post-1989

 

Croatian War 1991

 

1991

Croats

Eastern Slavonia

Croatia

77,000

1991

Serbs

Croatia Montenegro

Serbia and

120,000

Bosnian War 1992-5

 

 

all but especially Muslims

internal displacement

Bosnia

1,000,000

 

All incl.

External displacement

25 countries

1,000,000

 

Muslims/ Croats

Republika Skrpska

Croatia

45,000

 

Bosnian Serbs

Bosnia

Serbia/ Montenegro

250,000

1995

Croatian Serbs

Croatia/Krajina

Skpska/ Serbia

180,000


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